Organ donation is the process of giving an organ or a part of an organ for the purpose of transplantation into another person.
In order for a person to become an organ donor, blood and oxygen must flow through the organs until the time of recovery to ensure viability. This requires that a person die under circumstances that have resulted in an irreparable neurological injury, usually from massive trauma to the brain such as aneurysm, stroke or automobile accident. Only after all efforts to save the patient’s life have been exhausted, tests are performed to confirm the absence of brain or brain stem activity, and brain death has been declared, is donation a possibility. The state donor registry is searched to determine if the patient has personally consented to donation. If the potential donor is not found on the registry, his or her legally authorized representative (usually a spouse, relative or close friend) is offered the opportunity to authorize the donation. Once the donation decision is established, the family is asked to provide a medical and social history. Donation professionals determine which organs can be transplanted and to which patients on the national transplant waiting list the organs are to be allocated.
Organ donation can occur with:
· A Deceased donor, who can give kidneys, pancreas, liver, lungs, heart, intestinal organs
· A Living donor, who can give a kidney, or a portion of the liver, lung, intestine, or pancreas
Organ Donation In India
In 1994, the Government of India passed the Transplantation of Human Organs Act that legalized the concept of brain death and, for the first time, facilitated organ procurement from heart beating, brain dead donors. However, this concept has not caught on well in India for want of public education and awareness. This in turn is perpetuating the commercial sale of human organs due to the widening gap between the demand and supply. Thousands of lives are lost in India annually from heart and liver failure since transplantation of unpaired organs like heart, liver and pancreas is either difficult or impossible from living donors. This is only possible on a large scale if these organs are available from cadaver donors.
In the United States, in 2004, there were over 14,000 organ donors – an increase of 695 donors (7%) over 2003. During this time the number of cadaver donors grew by 11% to 7,152, the largest annual increase in deceased donors in the last 10 years. In 2005, the number of kidneys transplanted from cadavers was 9,914, while the number of patients who received transplants from living donors was 6,563.
About Organ Donation
There are two ways of Organ donation:
1. Living related donors: only immediate blood relations (brother, sister, parents & children) can donate as per the Transplantation of Human Organ Act 1994. Living donor can donate only few organs, one kidney (as one kidney is capable of maintaining the body functions), a portion of pancreas (as half of the pancreas is adequate for sustaining pancreatic functions) and part of the liver (as the few segments that are donated will regenerate after a period of time) can be donated.
2. Cadaver Organ donor: can donate all organs after brain death.
|Lungs||Terminal lung illnesses|
|Heart valve||valvular disease|
Organ Donation Process
- Hospital Organ Donation Registry coordinates the process of cadaver organ donation i.e. organ donation after death and transplantation.
- There are two ways to donate organs:
- a. By pledging for organ donation when a person is alive
- b. By consent of family after death.
- During lifetime, a person can pledge for organ donation by filling up a donor form in the presence of two witnesses, one of who shall be a near relative.
- Organ donor can email us at : firstname.lastname@example.org or fill in the online form here
- The donor form is absolutely free of cost.
- As mentioned earlier, you need to fill up the donor form and get it signed by two witnesses one of whom shall be a near relative and send the same to us via email or online
- After receiving the filled in form, we will provide the donor with an organ donor card bearing registration number on it.
- It is suggested to keep the donor card in your pocket and share your decision with your near and dear ones.
- If a person expires without registration, the family members can donate his/her organs. For this they need to sign a consent form, which is provided at that time.
- Once, the relatives give a written consent, organs are harvested within a few hours.
- The family of the donor does not face any difficulty or extra burden upon them.
- The transplant coordination team carries out the entire process till the relatives receive the body of the deceased.
- The deceased body is given back to the family in a dignified way.
- There is no disfigurement. The body can be viewed as in any case of death and funeral arrangements need not be delayed.